Human Impact and Plymouth, Michigan

By Aly Hartley


Plymouth, Michigan was born like many areas mid-state. Bearing no distinction outside of a shared name with colonial significance, some say it is currently a place easily missed and of little significance. However, every human life influences the surrounding world as well as the history within it astronomically. This is seen very clearly in the Plymouth’s story. Hidden from history books or thought of as no great importance to the state or country, the arrival and actions of the pioneers and their families to the area, the influence they had on the land, industry, national affairs, and politics are the key thread of development. The imprints left by every single person can be seen in the physical state of the city, within the relationships inside the current community, as well as with what is left of the township as it stands. It is not fame that impacts a rich history, but the people that are the driving force in shaping the world lived in today.

Early Settlers

In 1820, Congress reduced the price of land to $1.25 per acre and reduced the minimum purchase amount from 160 acres to 80 acres. Then in 1825, the Erie Canal opened.[1] These things both contributed to the attraction that sent many from the east of the United States to arrive and pioneer a new land in the state of Michigan. The story of Plymouth, including but not limited to the founding and progression of the village, country, and community, can be clearly seen through the lives of the area’s early settlers.

There are many discrepancies as to who first arrived and settled within the boundaries of Plymouth Township.[2]  What can be agreed upon is that between 1824 and 1826, a handful of the settlers arrived and began to settle. Many of these men and their families would have a huge impact on the area.

Among them was John Tibbits, who purchased 80 acres in 1824 and settled on the land in 1825[3]. It is unclear if he can be attributed as the first settler, though as will be discussed later it is noted that the first village meeting took place in his barn. His writings are used as first hand documentation of the development of the land, the original terrain, native animals, and the effects of those things in way of consequences of the progression of settlement.

A.B Markham’s written account of his journey to Plymouth in 1825 is incredibly detailed and intricate to the telling of Plymouth’s history. It is also a testament to the turbulent journeys many of these men faced just to get to the state. Markham purchased 80 acres in 1825 at the age of 28. He went on to hold offices such as the secretary at the meeting held in Tibbit’s barn, drafter of papers used to form a military company in 1827, fence viewer, road master, collector, constable, and self-proclaimed collector of runaways.[4] His son William, born in 1851, would pioneer the biggest industry Plymouth would come to know and profit from.

William Starkweather is one of the most common names attributed to the founding of Plymouth.  His arrival in 1825 was after purchase of 80 acres of land, but he later bought 160 more for a totally of 240 acres owned, making him the most prominent land owner at the time.  His wife Keziah was the first white woman in the area. Though not their first child born, their son George was the first white baby born to the settlement. [5] William was able to quadruple his land investment of $300 when he sold most of it in 1835. He served as school inspector in 1938. His death in 1844 was due to complications from the Measles.[6]  The land he still owned at the north end of town, now known as Old Village, was left to his surviving son, George.

When John Kellogg arrived in 1832, he purchased most of William Starkweather’s land. As owner of most of the land that made up the village of Plymouth, he mapped out commercial and residential areas and began to sell it in lots.[7] He opened a hotel and soap factory. He donated the park at the center of town originally known as Village Green, more currently called Kellogg Park[8] He served as Poor Director in 1842, and passed at the age of 85.

Ebenezer Penniman didn’t arrive until 1835, but is still regarded as one of the first settlers. He and his wife came to the area after hearing about William Starkweather’s prosperity. Penniman began farming in the area, but is most notably remembered for opening the first bank in Plymouth. He became the President of the National Band of Plymouth until age 80. He also served as supervisor of Plymouth Township from 1842-44 and again in 1850. He also served in Congress from 1851-53.[9]


John Kellogg Image Source: Dauzet-Miller Legendary Locals,20

Erastus Hussey was the third person to purchase land in Plymouth Township in 1824. He and his wife did not settle in the area until 1827. They were both Quaker abolitionists and sold groceries and other supplies at their dry-goods store.[10]  After relocating to Battle Creek, MI, he contributed greatly in the abolitionist movement during the American Civil War, served in both houses of state legislature, and served as Mayor of Battle creek in 1867. Hussey passed away in 1889.

Ebenezer Penniman. Image Source: Dauzet-Miller Legendary Locals, 13.

George Starkweather would prosper just as his father had before him. He distinguish himself as a prominent lawyer specialized in will writing, farmer, and businessman.  He owned a general store on Main Street. When the Railroad was put in in 1871, George understood the importance and prosperity this could bring. Expecting the main activity in town to move to the north end near the railroad, he cut a road through his property and relocated his store to the corner of what is currently known as Starkweather Avenue and Liberty. This building still stands and is the home of Hermann’s Olde Town Grille. Some residents shared his sentiment and a small business district was constructed in the area.[11] He went on to serve as Township Supervisor several times, Village President in 1898 and as a Michigan Legislator in 1854. He died in 1907 at the age of 81.[12]

George Starkweather and wife, Image Source: Dauzet-Miller Legendary Locals, 11.

His vision for a long term down-town area to move to the north end would never pan out mainly for many reasons. The street he carved out was between an already growing residential areas, therefore there was no room for a downtown to grow there. Also, when the train became less popular for passenger travel, many of the business in the area died out. Thirdly, there were residents that were never on board with the relocation of the down town area and reacted with animosity that has been carried down within the community today.

Resistance to Further Annexation

It would not take long before these settlers had set up quite a bustling village. After two years of being referred to as the surveyor’s designation of “town one south, range eight east”, the downtown as “Podunk”, and the north end referred to as “Joppa”, it was time for an official name.  On February 26, 1827, a group of settlers gathered in the barn of John Tibbits to select one.  After narrowing the choices to Leroy, Pekin, and Plymouth, Territorial Governor Lewis Cass chose the latter on April 12th of that year.[13] Plymouth Township was now the official name for what was known as a “super township”. It encompassed nearly 72 square miles and consisted of what is now Northville, Canton, and Plymouth townships.[14]

1860 Map of Plymouth Township. Image Source: Kerstens, Innovators, 26.

The size and power of Plymouth Township would begin to change rather quickly. Known originally as South Plymouth, Canton Township was the first area to break off onto its own. An act of the Michigan Territorial Legislature created the township of Canton on March 7, 1834.[15] This left Plymouth Township roughly one-half of its original size. The township again lost more power in 1867 when a 2-mile area that had been previously referred to as Plymouth Corners was incorporated as the Village of Plymouth and set up its own government.[16] This area then became a city in 1932.

The final partition came in 1898. By this time, Northville had become its own village, but remained under Plymouth Township’s government.[17] Rumblings from the residents of Northville had been growing for some time, mostly over two grievances: the distance required to deal with Plymouth Township was costly and time consuming, and the fact that while bridges in Plymouth were tended to, those in Northville were left unattended and deteriorated. Validity of these complaints can be seen not only by the physical distance shown on maps, but in the fact that at a 1889 meeting of 100 township residents held in Northville, only 12 of that 100 were from Plymouth proper.[18]  A vote was cast on whether Northville should separate. With most Plymouth residents voting no, the count tallied in at 40 to 30 for separation. Plymouth Township was split again in half creating Northville Township as its own. This now put Plymouth Township down to the 15.9 square miles it now covers today.[19]

An additional consequence to be considered is that of political power. The township that once presided over three villages now only encompassed one. This has bred a somewhat hostile relationship between township and city, though moments of cooperation do exist. An example can be seen in 1995 when the city and township combined fire departments leaving control in the hands of the Township. The city pays 25% of the fire departments budget, close to $1 million a year. Both sides admit the merger is not always easy, but has been generally beneficial.[20]  More consistently between the two factions, however, have been ongoing battles over annexation of the township entirely to the city or vise-versa.[21] Though on a large scale this has yet to favor either side in outcome, it does stand to show rather clearly the current relationship between the two and that the fight on annexation has not changed with time.

Civil War

Michigan’s contributions to the union army in the American Civil War were large and many. The men of Plymouth were no exception. A total of 90,000 men in Michigan served on the battle field during the war, about 23% of the male population in the state at that time[22]. When President Lincoln called for additional troops from northern states in 1862, Michigan quickly responded with eight new regiments. [23] A meeting at Village Green was held in August where 100 volunteers were procured to create the Company C of the 24th Michigan Infantry. 69 of these 100 men were residents of Plymouth.[24] Shortly after, the 24th Michigan joined the well-known Iron Brigade.

Comprised of the 2nd, 6th, and 7th Wisconsin, 19th Illinois, and later the 24th Michigan infantries, it did not take long for a reputation of fearless fighting to circle the Confederate Army.  First known as the “Black Hat Brigade” for their choice of tall black hats rather than the kepi style, the name Iron Brigade was given during the Battle of South Mountain in 1862. Major General George B. McClellan observed their fighting first hand and exclaimed “They must be made of iron!”.[25]

Most notable contributions from Michigan’s 24th infantry came with a price. The first day of battle at Gettysburg was spent on the front line outnumbered by the Confederate Army.  The unflinching brigade bought needed time for Union General George Meade to arrive with more men, overwhelm Robert E. Lee’s army, and win the battle.[26]  Their efforts were detrimental to the outcome of that battle. Consequences for the 24th Michigan Infantry during this battle was a mortality rate of 80%. This would come to be the highest casualty rate suffered by any Federal regiment in a single battle.[27]

Plymouth’s war time contributions were not limited to the battle field only.  The Underground Railroad consisted of an extensive network of secret safe houses to aid escaped slaves to freedom. Though Michigan welcomed many to stay in the state, slaves crossing the Ohio River often found themselves enroute through Detroit and into Canada.[28] Plymouth was a major contributor with many houses serving as stops along the way. Many who housed escapees were Quakers and avid abolitionists. A major hub of the railway’s activity took place at the Wesleyan Methodist Church. The church was founded by Rev. Marcus Swift and Rev. Samuel Bebbens, both of which had been driven from Nankin for their abolitionist views.[29]

Image Source: Dunbar and May, Michigan: a History of the Wolverine State, (Eerdmans, 1995), 26.

Arguably the biggest reason for the area’s influential participation lies within one of Michigan’s best-known abolitionist leaders Erastus Hussey. One of the first settlers of Plymouth, Hussey quickly became a well-known and liked community leader and businessman. He served in rolls such as highway commissioner, school inspector, assessor, and school commissioner.[30] In 1840, he was asked by a Quaker from Indiana to move to Battle Creek and run the underground station there. Hussey relocated, was editor of the Michigan Liberty Press, member of the Michigan Liberty Party, and was regarded as the chief conductor of the Michigan line.[31] Because many of his connections and relationships were grounded in the Plymouth area, it is believed this contributed to the township’s major roll. After the Civil War, Hussey estimated 2,000 slaves escaped through the Michigan line and remained modest in his work, stating that all involved were “Working for humanity.”[32]  This war disrupted many lives, but Plymouth would prove resilient and prosperous in the years to come.

Erastus Hussey , Image Source:



Farm land is what enticed pioneers to the Plymouth area, but farming was not much of a for profit business as it was a sustained way of survival. The backbone of Plymouth Township’s economy was very much tied to industry. As settlements began to grow, a string of mills were built along the Rouge River that both created profit and eased early settlers’ progress in creating a comfortable lifestyle.  Foundries, liveries, an ashery, wool and farmed goods markets, as well as specialized trades began to open and grow as well.[33]

When the train route to Detroit opened in 1871, the area saw growth in local business as a result. Though George Starkweather’s vision that the downtown area would move closer to the train station never panned out in the long run, the area did set up a small business district to the north that began the era of profitable industry for the entire village. Buildings were erected on Liberty Street and substantial profit was made by way of hotels, small shops, breweries, and markets. As travel technology progressed, passenger trains became less frequent as did the need for many of these industries that Plymouth originally benefited from.  Hotels saw the biggest decline and profitable industry then shifted focus to the exportation of manufactured goods.

Liberty Street top: about 1880 Bottom: Today. Image Source: Kerstens, Plymouth. 45.

An early company worth mentioning marketed and sold Self Setting Mole Traps throughout the United States and Canada. Though not patented until 1895, adds for the trap were ran in the Plymouth Mail as early as 1889.[34] The add boasted the traps would end destruction of personal lawns; proof residing in reports of twenty-nine moles caught in one yard. W.N Wherry operated his Mole Trap Company, as well as bicycle repair and taxidermy shops in Plymouth. In 1898, 5,000 traps were ready for export and the business remained in operation until 1907.[35] The popularity of the Mole Trap was substantial in its own right, yet would pale in comparison to a much larger industry that put Plymouth on the map globally.

1889 Advertisement. Image Source: Kerstens. Innovators, 54.


Clarence J. Hamilton Image Source: Kerstens.Rifle Industry,34.

Local services and manufactured home goods would be noticeably sidelined by the unexpected: a child’s toy. Dubbed the “Air gun Capitol of the World”, Plymouth would at one time house three competing air gun manufacturing companies whilst becoming a household name around the world. William F. Markham (son of A.B Markham) would be the first to create a commercially successful air rifle company in 1886. Not far behind was successful inventor Clarence James Hamilton who would create two other air rifle companies, The Plymouth Air Rifle Company and Daisy Manufacturing Company, ultimately dominating the industry in the end.

Originally producing wooden water cisterns, the Markham Manufacturing Company would rebrand itself as Markham Air Rifle Company (MARC) in 1887 after the success of their first rifle model named “Chicago”. The first model was so successful that The Strobel and Wilken Company of Chicago would obtain exclusive rights to sell the rifle in Chicago for the next five years.[36]  Future models such as “Prince”, “King”, and “Queen” were marketed towards both boys and girls and would also prove popular. Each model was affordable at a cost of $1-2. Soon Markham’s company became a household name, but would not remain at the top of the industry. The future overshadowing and absorption of MARC was caused by two main factors: problems in Markham’s personal life and weak advertising skills in comparison to his competitors.

As the company was a success thus far, money was stable and Markham, wife Carrie (Sheppard), and their three children were all well provided for. Then in the early 1890’s, Markham hired a stenographer named (Carrie) Blanche Shortman and fell madly in love with her. This very public affair was quite scandalous to the community members. Exacerbating the situation was the fact that Markham’s wife was a member of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union. This resulted in her refusal to grant her husband a divorce.[37]

Undoubtedly to ridicule his wife, Markham purchased property directly across the park from his family’s home and built his mistress an elaborate mansion in 1900. The house boasted 17 rooms, Queen Anne-style columns, indulgent gardens complete with ornate statues, a bird sanctuary, stained glass windows and a two-tiered portico.[38] Local woman often walked by the house to vocally express their disdain for Blanche and the affair.

Carrie Markham died in 1910, leaving her widower free to properly marry his long time mistress. The couple married in 1911, but this did little to elicit forgiveness by the community members and they were shunned. Markham took his new bride and relocated to California, leaving Ernest S Roe as president of the air rifle company in his absence. In California, Markham would become a successful real estate mogul until his death in 1930.[39] MARC would eventually be absorbed by the Daisy Manufacturing Company when Roe sold Markham’s shares to the company. Markham may have been responsible for the rifle’s creation, but it is Clarence Hamilton that would prove a fierce competitor and secure his place as leader in the in industry.

Pre-dating the air rifle era, inventor Clarence K. Hamilton had created an all metal, vaneless windmill. In 1882 the Plymouth Iron Windmill Company (PIWC), Plymouth’s first stock held company, was incorporated. Initial stockholders were Michael Conner who served as president of the company, Henry Baker who would later serve as president of Daisy, and Lewis Cass Hough who served as the treasurer.40]

In 1886, Hamilton was inspired by Markham’s rifle. After convincing friend Cyrus A. Pinkney to join him, he left the windmill company (though he still held stock) to pursue a new venture.[41] Named the Plymouth Air Rifle Company (PARC), the duo started producing their version of the air rifle. The company had a comparatively short life in comparison to the other companies, closing its doors after releasing 4 different models in 6 years[42]. The reason for the company’s termination wasn’t necessarily a reflection of their product, but due to an unexpected fire in 1894. PARC was not insured and attempts to secure funding to rebuild didn’t pan out due to members of the village common council consisting of men from the two competing companies.[43]

Hamilton himself was constantly driven by invention and upgrade possibilities. He had left his new company the same year it opened to pursue yet another spin on the rifle: an all-metal version. By 1888, surrounding farms had replaced their old wooden windmills and sales began to die down for PIWC. Amid talks of dissolving the company, Hamilton approached the board with two of his new rifle ideas. The company was already equip with blast furnaces and metal working necessities which made PIWC a better choice for production.[44]  The PIWC board of directors loved the idea of an all-metal rifle. Lewis Cass Hough is said to have shouted “Boy, that’s a Daisy!” after firing a prototype, leading not only be the name of the first rifle produced, but also the new name the company would take on in 1895: the Daisy Manufacturing Company.

Add including comic-suggested script to ask parents for a rifle. Image Source: Kerstens. Rifle Industry,101.

The success of the company lied not only with the attention and funds allocated to aggressive advertising, but also salesman Charles H. Bennet. Bennet traveled the country and then the globe selling the rifle and created Daisy popularity as far as China. His success with the company led him to become president of the company in the early 1900’s.  An initial allocation of $2,000 for advertising was set the first year of production with a target audience of America’s youth.  The budget increased yearly and reached $250,000 by 1958.[45] The posters and ads were successfully geared toward children as an avenue to ask their parents for a rifle as a Christmas gift. The 1930’s led Daisy to another genius advertising gimmick: business deals with popular comic strips and movie stars. Western movie series star Buck Jones (played by Charles Fredrick Gebhart) agreed to have his name used by the company and line of air rifles. The most popular was the Buck Jones Special which included a sundial and compass in 1934.[46] It is commonly accepted today 1983 film A Christmas Story (‘s) plot around the Red Ryder BB gun was actually mixed up with the Buck Jones Special as it was the only rifle to include these mentioned features. The Red Ryder did actually exists and was produced by Daisy in 1940, simultaneously with a line of toys contracted with the Superman comic series.

Deals like these brought great success for the company. However, by 1954, the factory was beginning to deteriorate. The company had just seated a new president after the death of Charles Bennet in 1956, and rather than build a new factory here, the board voted to move the company to Rogers, Arkansas for better prospects.[47] ). After a combined 75 years in the community between the company’s two names (Plymouth Iron Windmill Company and Daisy Manufacturing Company,) Daisy stopped production in Plymouth in 1958.[48]

The residents of Plymouth had been very happy about air rifle business having a presence in town. The three companies provided steady, well-paying jobs that spanned up to three generations of family members. More specifically, Daisy hired both men and woman, sponsored local youth basketball and baseball teams, and management took particular care of their employees. A great example of this was seen in 1933 when most companies couldn’t not pay their workers due to all the banks closing. Edward Hough went to Montreal and borrowed funds on his personal life insurance policies to ensure that employees never missed a day in pay.[49] Gestures like this fostered a reciprocated work environment where workers took pride in their work, managed waste, and kept excess cost down. It was a dismal day for the community when Daisy left town.

The shareholders of Daisy Manufacturing Company made many great decisions that resulted in the most successful and profitable business Plymouth would house to date. In comparison, there were some decisions made that would miss the mark.  After two failed businesses, future Ford Motor Company tycoon Henry Ford found himself in need of financial backing for what was to become that very company. In 1903, the horseless carriage was gaining popularity. Finding himself in the market for a carriage, Daisy’s then President Charlie Bennet was introduced to Ford through a mutual acquaintance. The interaction would lead to an offer of one-half of the new company from Ford in exchange for a $50,000 investment. Because Bennet couldn’t afford the investment on his own, he approached Daisy shareholders with the opportunity. The shareholders downvoted on account that the risk was too high given Ford’s track record. The result: a hugely missed opportunity for the company and Plymouth Township that only hindsight could tell. [50] While Ford received backing elsewhere, he did purchase the old mills along the Rouge River and converted them into factories for his company. He converted them again for a time to produce war goods during WWII.

Alter Car. Image Source: Kerstens.Postcards,23.

Unlucky as this downvote was, it did not end Plymouth’s involvement in the brass age auto industry. Designer Clarence Alter of Wisconsin outsourced to the Detroit area to manufacture his car. In 1914, the Alter Motor Car Company began production out of a factory on Farmer Street (the building still stands). Parts for the car were shipped via railway to the factory and the car was assembled there.[51]  The company produced two models: a touring car that sat 5, and a roadster.

The future of this company seemed bright. Soon after production began, the company employed 100 men and produced an average of 25 cars per day.[52] The success of the company, however, is a direct connection to the company’s dissolution. After the introduction of a second model in 1916, the company had orders for 600 cars. The company tried sourcing funds from investors to expand the factory to keep up with demand. When all deals fell through and financial backing could not be secured, money ran out and the directors voted in 1917 to dissolve the company. In the three years the company was in production, 1000 cars were produced.[53]

It was thought for many years that were no surviving Alter cars. This changed in 1959 when a couple from Ohio drove a 1915 model into town wanting to see the original factory.[54] That very car is now owned by a member of the Plymouth Historical Society and remains on display in the Plymouth Historical Museum as the only known Alter vehicle to remain. [55]

Like the exit of Alter’s presence in Plymouth, manufacturing and exportation’s direct influence on economy and lifestyle would too leave the area. The service industry has replaced manufacturing and become more of a sustainable income for residents rather than a growth factor for the city. Surrounded by larger cities that entice patrons from other areas with recreation, well-known store fronts, and night life, in conjunction with the population leveling off near 9,000 since the 1970’s, the draw to Plymouth is presently more local and quaint by nature.[56] The area now relies on local restaurants, parks, small town shopping, unofficial historic districts, and town festivals. There is a distinct difference between the north end of town and down town area in both landscape and taste. Main Street and the south end of town’s fast-food signs glow at night. Aside from a strip of older storefronts near Kellogg Park dubbed the “historic district”, it has become indistinguishable from many commercialized towns in the state.  The north end, however, is where the true historic village survives. Old Village has maintained the rich history of Plymouth and many of the original houses and buildings. Patronage here is local and has a community feel to it. Many are passionate for the history in this area and equate it to an outdoor museum, needing to be preserved. These two very different ideals that were fostered long ago still hold strong in a very discernible way within the 2-square mile radius encompassing Plymouth today.


Quite a journey has been had in the west end of Wayne County since its founding in 1825. The resilience of its founders paved the way to create a thriving village, shape a shrinking township, create political change, prosperous lives, and dare to be creators. Early citizens of Plymouth not only survived war, but actively participated in ways that effect the shape of the country. Each man, woman, and child in the area had a hand in the progress of growth, industry, and thrive: Farmers developed the area, great men served politically, technology brought ingenuity, and inventors catapulted Plymouth on the map globally. Very different from the manufacturing hub it once was, Plymouth, Michigan has gracefully settled into a quintessential Midwest town, rich in history. Things were not always effortless or without altercation, but one thing is absolute: the men who dared to make the journey here in the mid 1800’s unquestionably embody the thread holding together where history ends and current begins.


[1] Willis Dunbar and George S. May. Michigan:  a History of the Wolverine State, Third Revised Edition. (Grand Rapids, MI:  Eerdmans, 1995), 155.

[2] A.B Markham. Early History of the Township of Plymouth, January 14, 1877.( Plymouth, Wayne County, Michigan)., Sam Hudson. The story of Plymouth, Michigan: a Midwest Microcosm. (Plymouth, MI: Plymouth Historical Society, 1976)., Plymouth Historical Museum., H.N. Utley, Plymouth the First settlement- Reminiscences of the Early History of the Place Incidents and Anecdotes, 1874-76., Elizabeth Kelley Elizabeth Kerstens. Plymouths first century: Innovators and Industry. (Chicago, IL: Arcadia Pub., 2002).

[3] Sam Hudson, The story of Plymouth, Michigan: a Midwest microcosm (Plymouth, MI: Plymouth Historical Society, 1976), 16.

[4] A.B Markham. Early History of the Township of Plymouth, January 14, 1877. (Plymouth, Wayne County, Michigan.), 19.

[5] Hudson, Story of Plymouth, 15.

[6] Leis Dauzet-Miller, Legendary locals of Plymouth, Michigan (Charleston, SC: Legendary Locals, 2013),10.

[7] Hudson, Story of Plymouth, 32.

[8] Leis Dauzet-Miller, Legendary locals of Plymouth, Michigan (Charleston, SC: Legendary Locals, 2013),20.

[9] Ibid., 13.

[10] “Erastus Hussey,” Michigan History, accessed November 23, 2017,

[11] Brian Vincent Hill. Plymouth (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 2009),45.

[12] Dauzet-Miller, Legendary, 11.

[13] –  Elizabeth Kelley. Kerstens, Plymouths first century: innovators and industry (Chicago, IL: Arcadia Pub., 2002),11.

[14]  Plymouth MI – Official Website – History,

[15] History of Canton | Canton Township, MI – Official Website, accessed November 27, 2017,

[16] Kerstens. Innovators,12.

[17] “Northville: History,” Michigan History, accessed November 29, 2017,

[18] Kerstens..Plymouth first centuries,72.,Hudson.Story,123.

[19]  Plymouth MI – Official Website,

[20] Maureen Feighan, “Obstacles curb cities’ plans to merge services,” Detroit News, April 03, 2009, accessed November 20, 2017,

[21] Hudson. Story,124.

[22] Dunbar May, Michigan, 323.

[23] “Plymouth Historical Museum,” Home – Plymouth Historical Museum,


[25] Jerry D. Morelock, “Union Iron Brigade, 1861-65,” HistoryNet, June 01, 2017, accessed November 07, 2017,

[26] Dunbar and May. Michigan,325.

[27] Jack Dempsey, Michigan and the Civil War: a great and bloody sacrifice (Charleston, SC: History Press, 2011), 143.

[28] Dunbar and May. Michigan,303.

[29] Dan Sabo, “Old Village dishes up history,” HometownLife, October 25, 2015, , accessed November 26, 2017,

[30] Hudson, Story of Plymouth, 43.

[31]“Erastus Hussey,” Michigan History,,

Hudson, Story of Plymouth, 43.

[32] Ibid., 44.

[33] Ibid.,68.

[34] Ibid.,69.

[35] Ibid.,69.

[36] –   LivoniaTV. “History Lives: The Plymouth Air Rifle Industry”. Filmed September, 2005. htpps://

[37] Plymouth Historical Museum. 155 South Main Street- Plymouth, Michigan. Visited October 15, 2017.

[38] Elizabeth Kelley. Kerstens, Plymouths Air Rifle Industry (Charleston, SC: Arcadia, 2013), 28.

[39] Ibid., 32.

[40] Ibid.,33.

[41] Hudson, Story of Plymouth,74.

[42]. Kerstens, Air Rifle Industry, 37.

[43] –   LivoniaTV. “History Lives: The Plymouth Air Rifle Industry”. Filmed September, 2005. htpps://

[44] Kerstens, Air Rifle, 49.

[45] Kerstens, Air Rifle Industry, 88.

[46] –   LivoniaTV., htpps://

[47]. Kerstens .Air Rifle,55

[48]  Dauzet-Miller, Legendary,29

[49] Ibid.,  67.

[50] Hudson, Story of Plymouth, 88.

[51] –  Elizabeth Kelley Kerstens, Plymouth: in vintage Postcards. (Chicago, IL: Arcadia Pub., 2003), 23.

[52] “Alter Motor Car Company,” Alter Motor Car Company – Plymouth, Michigan, 2007.

[53] Hudson, Story of Plymouth, 93.

[54] Hudson, Story of Plymouth, 94.

[55] Plymouth Historical Museum. October 15, 2017.

[56] “US Census Bureau 2010 Census Interactive Population Map,” Visit, May 05, 2011.